2021.12.08 11:24 StocksonHighAlertz BreakingNews $LCLP @realLifeClips Subsidiary @Belfrics Introduces Marketing Campaign Featuring Celebrity Partners @TENAssociates
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AVENTURA, Fla., Dec. 08, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Life Clips, Inc. (OTC Pink: LCLP) (the “Company”), announced today that Belfrics India has launched a marketing campaign with the collaboration of award-winning celebrity partners Rashi Khanna, Sargun Mehta, Vikrant Massey and Varun Sharma discussing how easy it is to trade the crypto market with its multi-feature trading platform for digital assets and cryptocurrencies. Back with a bang, the multi-feature trading platform for digital assets and cryptocurrencies, showcases Belfrics India’s commitment to delivering a pre-eminent cryptocurrency opportunity to its clients. The #InvestmentMatlabBelfrics marketing campaign by Belfrics India is based on the premise that while various platforms teach about crypto, investors can find it difficult to understand and trade. https://finance.yahoo.com/news/life-clips-subsidiary-belfrics-introduces-134500495.html
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2021.12.08 11:24 AlsoTomLovett Succesful Management: Agency and Much-Improved Fluency
| Welcome to my latest post. I’ve been reading through the research on stuttering for almost a year now, and there’s a lot to be learned from it. It’s my goal to help the stuttering community by sharing it.|
I use "near-fluency" in this title, because successful management is characterized by significantly-improved fluency. But it is not a complete cessation of stuttering. It is not a "cure." Fluency and speech naturalness are significantly improved, but it still requires effort and attention. There is only one study that I've found that shows evidence of adults (ages 16-22) making a full recovery from stuttering. (Like the way that children recover from stuttering.)
Feel free to skip to the "Sucessful Management" header if you want to get right to the research. If you're interested in learning more about the neuroscience behind all of this, check out some of my earlier posts.
If you're curious and would like to read more about successful management, I'd highly recommend reading these studies by Laura Plexico. (The top three results; click on the [PDF] on the right side to view the full papers.) This study by Andersen & Felsenfeld is also great, but the full version is behind a paywall.
Successful Management: Agency and Near-Fluency Fall 2016
There's a fantastic burrito shop in downtown Boston, run by a mother-daughter team. They are famous for their homemade molé sauce and spicy black salsa. They're also incredibly kind people; the mother of the pair affectionately refers to each customer as "my dear."
I first discovered this restaurant when I landed a software job at a nearby tech start-up. Every Wednesday, the company would buy lunch for the software team, and it was up to the six of us to decide where to go. After my first molé burrito, my vote always went to Villa Mexico.
Villa Mexico didn't use the online ordering apps, though, so whenever we chose it for lunch, someone from the team would have to call in the order. Our team lead would always ask "Alright, who wants to make the call?" and, like the stereotypically socially-averse software engineers that we were, no one ever wanted to volunteer. We would all stare at the ground, uncomfortably waiting until someone else bit the bullet. I thought it was a bit silly that a bunch of grown adults were so afraid of a simple phone call, but to be fair, I wasn't volunteering either.
My fluency had regressed in the six months before I joined the company: the job hunt had been stressful and filled with brutal rejections. Once I landed the job, I was overwhelmed by the pace and ambition of start-up life, having spent the previous four years in slow, boring, consequence-free government employment. And since this was my first job as a software engineer, I was very uncertain about my job performance; I felt like I was making too many mistakes, not learning fast enough, and generally slowing the team down. In light of all this stress, I was hoping for a respite, for things to get easier - not to add another struggle to my life.
But that scene - no one stepping up to call in lunch - bothered me every time it happened. While I may have had a "better" excuse than my teammates, it still bothered me that I was avoiding it, too. It made me feel weak to give in to my fear of stuttering; I hated to think that I was too scared to even try. My frustration at myself and the situation kept building until, one Wednesday, I volunteered to make the call to Villa Mexico before my boss even asked.
That first call was very stressful. I was worried it would go poorly, so I ducked into a secluded corner of the office where my co-workers wouldn't hear me. I went over the team's orders several times, sketching out a rough script for myself. I centered myself by taking a few slow breaths. I acknowledged to myself that yes, I might stutter badly on the call, and yes, the restaurant may not respond well. The fear was real, but that feeling didn't guarantee that the call would go poorly; I wouldn't know how fluent I would be until I was actually on the phone.
The call, as it turned out, went pretty well. I blocked a little on the initial "Hello", but it's not too unusual for there to be an extra half-second before someone starts speaking on the phone.
After that, my speech came out smoothly. I managed to keep myself calm; I focused on getting the orders right to distract myself from worrying about my fluency.
I felt good about myself afterwards: I hadn't been perfectly fluent, but I had taken on a challenge and done well for myself. It hadn't turned out to be the trainwreck I feared it would be.
That was one victory, but I knew I still had room to grow; after all, that was only one call to one restaurant. I often overheard calls that our sales team made from the conference room. They were so confident and smooth on the phone, no matter the time of day or who they were speaking to. I wanted to be like that.
So I decided that I would volunteer to call in all of the team's lunch orders from then on. I figured this would give me plenty of opportunities to desensitize myself to the stress and build competence at speaking on the phone.
Still, I had doubts about this project of mine. I didn't want my self-improvement project to burden others, and I didn't think it would be fair to make another person deal with my stuttering through a phone call solely for my own benefit. Beyond worries about blocking, my voice is too deep and nasally for my liking, and my enunciation is generally poor. It might be unpleasant to talk with me over the phone, even when I'm fluent. I decided I'd try to speak slowly and clearly in hopes I'd be less burdensome. At the very least, it was reassuring that I knew Bessie and Mama King were very kind people; they would probably never say anything even if I was a burden.
The more of these calls I made, the less stressful they became. They were still the most intense moments of my day, but the feeling gradually shifted from nerve-wracking danger to thrilling challenge. Each time I finished a call, I would pat myself on the back for having taken another step in the right direction. And, as a bonus, there was always the reward of a delicious burrito.
With each call, I gained more confidence in my ability to manage my speech. I also relished the feeling that I had become a minor hero for taking over the phone calls; it wasn't lost on me that I was the only one on the team with a speech impediment. Plus, I got to form a pleasant relationship with Bessie and Mama King over several months of calling in orders and going into the shop to pick them up.
One day, as I was picking up an order, the daughter said out of the blue, "You know, you're great on the phone. You're, like, one of my favorite customers." This floored me. I figured that even if I was mostly fluent, my voice would still sound anxious and unpleasant, and my speech wouldn't have the natural, easy flow of fluent speakers. I could not understand for the life of me why Bessie would ever feel that way, so I asked what she meant.
She stopped for a second to think. "You're very... legible on the phone. You say it like," -- she imitated my cadence and made a clean chopping motion with her hand with each order "'One carnitas burrito, extra spicy...' Pause. 'One molé burrito with guacamole...' Pause. 'And one veggie burrito, no onions.' You make it very easy to understand you with the way you speak. Which is helpful, because it can get pretty loud in here."
Like many honest and unexpected compliments, this single remark changed my entire self-concept. I would never have expected anyone to say something positive about my speech, especially over the phone. I don't think she said this just to be nice, either; I don't think she knew that I had a stutter or was calling the restaurant as a project to get better at phone calls.
When I started making these calls, I was hoping to go from terrible to average; I would have been content with simply not being an obnoxious burden. As it turned out, I had done better than average -- I'd even developed some good traits to boot.
This journey didn't just help me with my stutter, it made me more confident in other aspects of my life. I became less anxious about my performance as an engineer, I became more social with my co-workers, and I spoke up more often during meetings. I began to feel like I contributed something unique and useful to the team. There were other speaking situations that still scared me, like giving a presentation in front of the entire company, but this experience showed me that if I put my mind to it, I could conquer those challenges as well.
Successful Management I am not the only stutterer who has gained fluency by taking on speech challenges; I have met other stutterers who have become significantly more fluent and confident than when they were younger. I've met people in support groups and online forums who report that while they still have a stutter, they're mostly fluent and unrestricted in when they choose to speak.
There is even a small host of research literature on "recovery" -- in particular, studies by Laura Plexico, Christian Kell, Tracy K. Anderson and Susan Felsenfeld examine this aspect of stuttering. The adult stutterers in these studies had lived with a stutter for their entire lives, but at the time they were interviewed, they were much more fluent and could apply that fluency to situations they would have dreaded or avoided when they were younger.
Speech metrics from these studies point to this "recovery" as qualitatively different from what most stutterers experience. Speech therapy improves fluency, but across all the studies discussed so far, almost none of the participants spoke with fewer than 2% stuttered syllables. Additionally, these participants lost some naturalness in their speech immediately following speech therapy despite their improved fluency.
Recovered stutterers, however, had qualitatively better metrics than the other participants. Recovered participants in these studies spoke with between 0.8-2% and 0.2-0.8% stuttered syllables, depending on measurement criteria. What's even more remarkable is that the fluent speakers in one of these studies were measured at 0.7% stuttered syllables! The recovered participants' speech naturalness was rated only slightly behind that of fluent speakers. The recovered speakers reported more anxiety about speaking situations than fluent speakers, but their anxiety was significantly less than that of the therapeutic cohort, either before or after completing speech therapy.
As Laura Plexico pointed out, "recovered" was not the perfect term to describe these participants. While these participants' speech was significantly more fluent and natural than when they were younger, this was not a complete cessation of stuttering, like in childhood recovery. These interviewees also reported that they needed to actively mind their speech to speak with this level of fluency. For these reasons, Plexico suggested a term that more accurately describes this phenomenon: "successful management."
I have lived with successful management for over a decade, and while I find that my speech system is more cooperative than when I was younger, I feel that the primary cause of increased fluency comes from an improved ability to monitor my speech and to intervene. I sense blocks sooner than I did when I was younger; I can feel a syllable or two ahead that my speech system is "off," and that unless I do something about it, I will probably block. And I can feel when my baseline fluency is doing well, and when it does, I know that I can relax a little.
These interventions are both more subtle and more effective than when I was younger; I almost never experience obstinate blocks anymore. Before successful management, it felt like there was almost nothing I could do to get through a block; I could only meet the resistance of a block with more force - which usually only made it worse - substitute a different word, or not speak at all. Now, I have the experience and presence of mind to feel where the block "is," untangle it, and apply gentle, guided pressure until I can get through to the other side. These days, managing my speech feels like a yoga teacher gently adjusting a student's posture, rather than a wild animal trying to thrash its way out of a trap.
Because I'm able to get past blocks with only these minor adjustments, my speech usually sounds natural to the average person. While some friends have spent enough time with me to know that I have a stutter, I'm still shocked from time-to-time when I mention my stutter to an acquaintance, and despite my doubts that they're just being polite, they insist they had no idea that I have a stutter.
Then again, more than oncem I've been several hours into a podcast before the guest - often someone relatively famous and successful - has a minor, but undeniable block and I realize they have a stutter. Usually, it's so imperceptible that even I, a fellow stutterer, didn't notice until then. For instance, I never realized that Shaq - one of the most famous and charismatic people on the planet - had a stutter until I read an interview with him where he discussed it. Even though I now know he has a stutter, it's still hard for me to detect the adjustments he makes to navigate around or through dysfluency.
For me, this improved fluency is closely linked with a stronger sense of agency; I speak more often because I'm more fluent, and I'm more fluent because I speak when I feel the desire to, before doubt and anxiety can creep in.
In my experience, there is a "momentum meter" with stuttering. Overcoming inhibitions and taking on speaking challenges builds positive momentum, which then makes it easier to get over the hurdle the next time. Conversely, running away from challenges creates momentum in the opposite direction, and the barrier to action becomes even higher.
When I was younger, this momentum meter was almost always in the negative. Nowadays it feels like I've accumulated so much positive momentum that when I face speaking challenges, I almost always do so with the aid of positive momentum. I still certainly have bad days and shy away from my fair share of challenges, but now, those fluctuations are much smaller, and easier to recover from.
The habit of tackling challenges head-on actually leads to fewer of these obstacles. Calling a restaurant used to be very stressful, which exacerbated my stutter, but the more often I called Villa Mexico, the easier it became. After a few months, calling a restaurant wasn't such a big deal anymore; I had brought the task inside my comfort zone; I was less stressed, so fluency came more easily.
I still experience my share of challenging speaking situations; there are still many times when I know I want to speak, but I'm scared about following through on that desire. I try to approach those moments the way a running back faces down a linebacker: my instinct may be to brace self-protectively against the danger, but it's actually safest to run directly at the challenge as hard as possible, to meet resistance with strength.
The Neuroscience of Successful Management Earlier, we explored Christian Kell's 2009 study, which compared neurological speech production between stutterers and fluent speakers. He and his team scanned the brains of fluent speakers as the baseline, or "standard" control group. They then scanned a cohort of stutterers before and after intensive speech therapy, and then again after the group completed a one-year maintenance program. Comparing these scans showed the differences between fluent speakers and stutterers as well as the changes in stutterers' speech production as they progressed through speech therapy. There was, however, one more group in Kell's study: a cohort of those who successfully managed their stutters.
Scans showed that those in the successful management cohort shared the same etiological flaws as the therapeutic cohort. However, individuals in the successful management cohort - who did not undergo speech therapy as part of the study - did not have the maladaptations observed in the other stutterers prior to speech therapy. In fact, the beneficial adaptations that only developed for the therapeutic cohort after the maintenance period were already present in the successful management cohort.
When participants in the therapeutic cohort were first scanned, the connections between their auditory and motor cortices were faulty and unreliable. The unreliability of auditory feedback led to an over-reliance on somatosensory feedback for speech planning. Speech therapy restored the auditory-motor connection and brought the auditory-somatosensory balance to a level that matched that of fluent speakers. The participants in the successful management cohort already showed both of these "normal" markers.
The therapeutic cohort members started the study with faulty white matter connections in the LIFG; these connections were only normalized after they had completed the maintenance program. In contrast, participants in the successful management cohort already had healthy white matter connections.
Finally, participants in the therapeutic cohort under-activated the LIFG during emotional and linguistic prosody prior to speech therapy. Speech therapy brought activation up to normal levels for emotional prosody, but it was only after they finished the maintenance program that linguistic prosody was normalized. Here, too, participants in the successful management cohort already had healthy levels of activation for both emotional and linguistic prosody.
These findings suggest that perhaps the people in the successful management cohort are not that different from stutterers who undergo a complete speech therapy program. The successful management cohort had the same etiological flaws observed in the therapeutic cohort and arrived at much the same resolution, but they did so without the aid of speech therapy.
There was, however, one activation pattern that clearly distinguished the successful management cohort not only from members of the therapeutic cohort, but also from the fluent speakers: during speech, the successful management cohort showed activation in their left hemisphere in an area labelled Brodmann's Area 47/12 (L BA 47/12). Neither the fluent speakers nor participants in the therapeutic cohort showed any activation in this area at any point in the study. This finding lends further credence to the idea that successful management is a qualitatively different experience of stuttering.
Kell pointed out that while L BA 47/12 activation clearly and strongly correlates with successful management, it was unclear how it might contribute to the improved fluency of successful management, especially because the speech process does not typically pass through the area surrounding L BA 47/12.
Kell observed that this activation in L BA 47/12 was connected to activation in the superior caudal cerebellum; therefore, L BA 47/12's benefit should somehow be related to the functions of the cerebellum, which contributes to timing, fine motor control, and somatosensory processing. Additionally, this connection operated entirely outside of the standard speech network; however it was helping, it was doing something novel, not amplifying or assisting existing processes.
Kell hypothesized that L BA 47/12 could be mediating somatosensory information coming from the cerebellum. This would continue the progression of the auditory-somatosensory balance observed in the therapeutic cohort and take it one step further.
Recall that the therapeutic cohort's improved fluency correlated with a tipping in the auditory-somatosensory feedback balance from overly-somatosensory to one that matched fluent speakers. If this hypothesis is correct, L BA 47/12 would be devaluing somatosensory information, tipping the auditory-somatosensory balance further towards auditory feedback.
Kell's other hypothesis developed as a result of the region in which L BA 47/12 is located: the orbitofrontal cortex. The orbitofrontal cortex contributes to planning and decision-making; it takes in information about the present moment, compares it to past experiences, predicts the outcomes of multiple potential actions, and then encourages the actions that it calculates will lead to the best outcomes. The functional connection between L BA 47/12 and the cerebellum may be the orbitofrontal cortex taking advantage of the cerebellum's fine-tuned motor control, somatosensory information, and timing.
Applied to stuttering and successful management, Kell suggested the orbitofrontal cortex may be processing highly-relevant information from the cerebellum and applying it to the executive control of speech. This additional computation and high-quality information may lead to better awareness of one's speech, allowing stutterers to make conscious and effective interventions in their speech in order to maintain fluency.
I give the most weight to this hypothesis because it aligns with my subjective experience of successful management. Perhaps my improved awareness of my speech comes from the orbitofrontal cortex monitoring the motor components of speech and detecting that something is awry.
Kell's work offers insight on another major question: whether anyone with a stutter has the potential to reach successful management.
Kell pointed out that while L BA 47/12 activation strongly correlated with successful management, it was unclear when this activation pattern began; participants were only scanned years or decades after their self-reported transition to successful management, so it could not be discerned whether this cohort had always activated L BA 47/12 or if it developed as a neuroplastic adaptation as individuals transitioned into successful management.
If these stutterers had always activated L BA 47/12, then only a certain percentage of stutterers would ever have the potential to achieve successful management. However, if this pattern is a neuroplastic adaptation, then it's more likely that any stutterer could reach successful management.
Based on the existing research, I believe it is most likely that L BA 47/12 activation is a neuroplastic adaptation to behavioral changes, much in the same way that speech therapy can drive neurological adaptations. Experiential research shows that there are replicable patterns of behavior that lead to successful management. These behavioral changes - like greater attention to one's speech - dovetail nicely with the earlier hypothesis about L BA 47/12 contributing to the executive control of speech. To me, it seems the L BA 47/12 activation pattern is the last step in the neurological progression from raw adaptation, to normalization through speech therapy, and then to successful management. This neurological progression mirrors the progressive improvement of fluency from moderate-to-severe dysfluency, to mild, to near-natural.
Kell made another interesting discovery, one that shed light on the potential for stutterers' to have different severities of etiology. Though an stutterer's dysfluency can vary dramatically, it's likely that some stutterers have a "worse" stutter than others. Kell discovered that a participant's fluency status - fluent speaker, stutterer, or successfully-managed stutterer - correlated with the volume of grey matter in their LIFG.
\"Recovered\" refers to successful management, \"persistent\" to the therapeutic cohort
From looking at this chart, it's clear that while there is overlap between the three cohorts, those in the more-fluent groups generally had more grey matter than their less-fluent peers. The fact that participants in the successful management cohort had a higher volume of grey matter than those in the therapeutic cohort may be indicative of a less-severe etiology and that they therefore may have had an easier path to successful management.
However, I don't believe one should presume the severity of their etiology based on their present fluency. Fluency can vary dramatically throughout one's life, and the worst dysfluency correlates with neurological malapdatations that can reliably be resolved through speech interventions. Additionally, it's worth noting that there was significant overlap between the therapeutic and successful-management cohort.
There is even further reason for optimism: out of the forty-something individuals in these studies who achieved successful management, none indicated that they knew successful management was even a possibility, much less that they had deliberately aimed for it. Most of the interviewees from Plexico's 2005 study were active either in speech pathology or in the stuttering community, yet none reported that they were aware of successful management as a phenomenon. These individuals were addressing the immediate problems in their life, unaware that doing so would lead to a significant, lasting improvement in their fluency. If successful management can be achieved even by those who do not consciously aim for it, then there’s reason to believe that those who strive purposefully towards successful management are even more likely reach to this goal.
Additionally, the path to successful management is built on the foundation of developing healthy coping responses to stuttering. Even if one does not achieve successful management, adopting these changes will almost certainly improve one's quality of life.
To be fair, these studies are informative, but do not guarantee success. The insights that we have about achieving successful management only come from the reports of those who effectively reached successful management. There are no studies that tested - much less proved - the efficacy of a program specifically designed for reaching successful management; it's possible that one could exactly replicate the behaviors and attitudes reported in these studies but not get the same positive results.
There is every reason to trust the insights gained from these these studies, even though so many things about successful management are still unknown. The two studies on the personal side of successful management - one by Laura Plexico, and the other co-authored by Tracy K. Anderson and Susan Felsenfeld - were conducted independently of each other, yet they reached very similar conclusions. Until future research proves otherwise, I believe we should assume successful management is possible for anyone with a stutter until proven otherwise, and that all of us can and should aim for it.
The Transition to Successful Management Speech therapy is one stepping-stone that has helped stutterers achieve successful management, but surprisingly, it is not the most common approach. Of Kell's thirteen successfully-managed stutterers, only four had ever attended speech therapy, and only one of those four considered it a causal factor in recovery. Even more telling, there was a major gap between when the participants finished therapy and when they made the transition to successful management; this gap was (respectively) 5, 7, 26 and 38 years. Therefore, while intensive speech therapy can bring severe-to-moderate dysfluency to mild, it will not necessarily continue the journey into successful management.
In her studies on the experiential side of stuttering, Laura Plexico identified two sets of coping mechanisms employed by stutterers to manage life with their speech impediment. The first set of coping mechanisms typified stutterers' experience before successful management, when they were overwhelmed by their stutter and unable to make lasting positive change. During this time, these interviewees were ashamed of their stutter and their inability to control it. They tried to always present themselves as fluent speakers. Anxious about blocking around others, they invested a lot of effort into strategizing about how to handle speaking situations. When others responded unkindly to their stutter, participants reported, it was particularly hurtful.
The pressure that came with the lack of control over their speech, coupled with the strong internal demands to present as fluent sometimes became unbearable. When this happened, the interviewees reported that they would resort to avoiding speech altogether; they would stifle their desire to speak and avoid social interactions. These interviewees were conscious that this avoidance offered short-term relief from stuttering yet carried severe long-term negative consequences; avoidance undercut their sense of agency, prevented them from realizing their full potential, and left them socially isolated. Stuck between the threat of dysfluency and the pain of avoidance, these interviewees felt frustrated, helpless, and trapped.
However, the same interviewees who suffered terribly from their stutters were still able to achieve successful management; this change in their lives coincided with a shift in coping strategy from avoidance to approach. Instead of running away from the pain of failure, they took risks in pursuit of success. Instead of viewing their stutter as something over which they had no control, they paid closer attention and investigated how to better manage their fluency. Thrusting themselves into action and looking more closely at their stutters then led to more control over their lives and their speech.
The clearest change came in abandoning avoidance as a primary coping mechanism. Interviewees reported that they understood that avoiding speech for fear of dysfluency did not bring them any closer to a long-term solution; if anything, avoidance guaranteed failure, while taking risks at least carried the possibility of success.
Part of this risk-taking included looking more closely at their speech. Before the transition to successful management, they wanted to think about their speech as little as possible since doing so usually led to greater self-consciousness and worse dysfluency. As part of this transition, these participants adopted an attitude of curiosity and investigated their speech in order to develop better ways to manage it. With more attention, they learned to make adjustments to be a little more fluent. They took responsibility for their speech, with the attitude that they had the power to influence their fluency for the better. With these changes, fluency became less of a blind gamble and more of a strategic challenge.
Swapping avoidance for approach is simple in concept but difficult in execution; avoidance comes from fear of very real potential of dysfluency and social rejection. It's quite a leap to let go of defensive self-protection, and deliberately expose oneself to greater danger. Both the Plexico and Anderson & Felsenfeld studies noted that successfully-managed stutterers all showed high levels of motivation and determination.
The studies also laid out the catalysts that triggered the desire for change and the motivations that sustained them on this journey. For some, success outside of speech led to increased confidence, which then paved the way for success with stuttering. This confidence may have given the interviewees the desire to "do something" about their speech and the emotional wherewithal to tolerate the inevitable setbacks that come with self-improvement. They also learned to see themselves beyond their stutter, as a complete human being, so that their self-concept was no longer dominated by their speech impediment. They also came to recognize that everyone has their struggles in life, that no one really skates through life easily; stuttering just happens to be a problem they had to face.
Of Kell's thirteen successful management participants, four attributed their improvement to professional success or milestones like graduating school. Three attributed it to self-development practices like self-observation, therapy and self-help, or "natural therapy."
Some interviewees credited their success to the support of others: speech therapists, mentors, friends, family, or loved ones. By providing freedom from judgment, these trusted individuals helped the interviewees feel safe from the constant danger of stuttering. Additionally, these people believed in the interviewees' potential to succeed and had encouraged their efforts.
One gentleman described how the classic "fake it til you make it" strategy drove his journey to successful management. When he became a police officer, he reported, he needed to exude confidence and assertiveness to do his job properly. Initially, this confidence was just a front that he would put on; however, with time and consistent effort, it became more permanent.
Others confronted their speech first, and this action led to improved fluency and confidence. This is perhaps a more difficult approach, since one has to take risks without the security of a safe retreat.
For some, negative experiences were the catalyst; one interviewee reported that a stern talking-to from a high school teacher made her mad enough to confront the problem of her stutter. With so much pent-up frustration at dysfluency and self-imposed limitations that, with nothing left to lose, these participants reported throwing themselves into the speaking situations they had been avoiding. They didn't necessarily have much knowledge about stuttering or a plan for how to improve their fluency, so they simply figured it out along the way.
Another gentleman, credited his recovery primarily to speech therapy in combination with social support and personal action. For the first thirty years of his life, he was severely distressed and hemmed in by his stutter. On the advice of his then-girlfriend, he enrolled in speech therapy, where he learned for the first time that it was possible to mitigate his dysfluency. Developing the power to work through blocks gave him a sense of agency and showed him that he could push back on his stutter. He displayed his motivation and commitment in continuing to practice therapeutic techniques on his own for a year after therapy.
Others didn't have to motivate themselves into action; they were thrown into the deep end, and to their own surprise, learned that they could swim. One shared that, upon joining the military, he was assigned to deliver aptitude tests. This meant standing in front of a classroom of fresh-faced recruits, giving instructions and answering questions. Being the center of attention in a group situation was terrifying; at first he would numb himself with sedatives just to get by. But with time and more repetitions, he navigated the task and rose to the challenge. The stress decreased, he became more confident, and he pushed himself to do more challenging things like making eye contact with recruits while speaking. This deep immersion led to a rapid decrease in his stuttering in only six months; a relatively fast transformation considering that most interviewees reported that their transition took place over six-to-twelve months.
It's necessary to directly confront stuttering if we are to reach successful management, and the interviewees offer insight into how to best make this journey.
Redefining "Failure" If one's goal is successful management, a reasonable, understandable way to measure progress would be one's fluency, but these interviews suggest that this is not the best approach. Interviewees from these studies reported that when they were younger and more dysfluent, they judged their success in a particular situation by how fluent they were. This mindset can be unhelpful, though, because by this criteria, stuttering was always equated with failure. If one thinks they will be dysfluent - and thus fail - they will be more likely to avoid a speaking situation. Additionally, the standard of perfection is an impossible pressure to live up to, even under successful management; if a stutter persists into adulthood, there will always be the potential to block.
Instead, these interviewees redefined failure to mean "failure to try." What came to matter most was whether or not they took the initiative to speak, not necessarily how fluent they were once they chose to talk. This mindset is helpful because it incentivizes action and risk-taking, which we have seen are two key drivers of successful management. With time, any short-term embarrassment you may have felt about blocking will be replaced by the pride you take in yourself for having had the courage to try. If you fail to act, however, you will be stuck wondering "What if?"
These studies underscore the idea that you don't need to wait for improved fluency to increase your agency; in fact, causation usually works in the other direction. To this point, the Menzies study on cognitive-behavioral therapy, participants were able to complete more items on their challenge tasklist even with zero improvements to their fluency.
Losses and rough days will happen along your journey. Keep in mind that not all bravery will be rewarded in the short-term; sometimes taking bigger risks will seemingly only lead to bigger losses. That's why, in addition to bravery, you need resilience.
Resilience While the achievements of these interviewees are encouraging, it’s also important to put them in perspective and recognize the ebbs and flows of this journey. In my experience, successful management is not a permanent achievement; it's not like you cross a clear threshold and then have a lifetime of easier fluency ahead of you. It may be possible to regress out of successful management. I know that, at times, I have lost that forward-leaning positive momentum; I've felt my comfort zone shrink and my ability to expand it become weakened.
At age twenty-four, I had gotten a grip on my fluency and was becoming more confident in my speech as well as in life. Had I known about it, I would have considered myself to have achieved successful management and L BA 47/12 activation. Then, I went to boot camp.
The stress of boot camp shook my fluency and undermined my ability to speak in spite of fear. I fell a long way down into avoidance and negative momentum before I was able to stop the slide. I had to build my sense of agency and positive momentum bit by bit from the ground up. I had to push myself to do things that used to be easy.
Just as we should not expect fluency every time we speak, we should not expect agency from ourselves, either. Sometimes, we don't have the emotional bandwidth to do "the right thing." We all experience times where we are too stressed or tired to take a risk; or we simply won't want to deal with our stutter in that moment.
Resilience means bouncing back after defeats and staying focused on the bigger picture. Temporary discouragement is natural, but you have to be able to move on and get the next one. Keep that larger positive momentum rolling, don't let individual losses knock you off your game too far. No matter how bad things have become, the smallest victory can turn the tide.
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2021.12.08 11:24 MRichardTRM The strange formation on the moon has finally been identified
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2021.12.08 11:24 biffthestiff What the hell is destination mode good for?
I was down by the medical center and put destination mode to Katy -1.5 hours which is 30 minutes west of Houston. Uber was kind enough to send me to Atascosita and i had to dry hump it back 1 hour (exactly 1.5 hour drive total) . $20 fare minus gas, tolls, i figure i made $8 per hour. I would make more at mcdonalds including the fries i steal
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2021.12.08 11:24 EeveeEvolves03 🆙 to 🆙
2021.12.08 11:24 GoblinHGuy Message Editor
I am really sick of accidentally hitting the Enter key, and sending an unfinished, error-filled message. Hire a competent text editing company! And your spell-checker is just as bad, as are your robo editors. If it were not for the Jeopardy site, I would be out of here!
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2021.12.08 11:24 sweatyicecubes Oh no.
2021.12.08 11:24 Anedgyusername_ [Giveaway] Storage clearance
Doing another storage clearance!
Entry fee: Free
Location: Far right of my Island. (Visible from dodo plane)
No cataloguing please!
Comment for dodo code if interested :)
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2021.12.08 11:24 GoingDark69 Join the Pilots of The Lost Frontier Discord Server! Or don't, not gonna force you
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2021.12.08 11:24 ReasonablePlankton New T H I C C earpads on the K240's.
2021.12.08 11:24 MungYu na val will be different
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2021.12.08 11:24 JB93Til Snowflakes on my car
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2021.12.08 11:24 LohanVenter I would like to hear some opinions on this team. I'm a sucker for a hybrid and went more with players i like than meta. All first owned except Trent. Been treating me well. Any advice going forward with this concept?
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2021.12.08 11:24 HardlyCinnamon notify me
2021.12.08 11:24 Champagnenroses143 Okay,im shy posting this but fuck it.
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2021.12.08 11:24 nanithefak678 [FT] Street lamps [LF] NMTs
2021.12.08 11:24 ItalianJoe PC Mod - Metal Gear Solid V Ground Zeroes Daytime Opening Cutscene (my 8:48 timestamped YouTube comment may also cause some "conflicts" with the reader's "internal timeline" "for a S-Special reason.")
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2021.12.08 11:24 tinmar_g Panoramic view to the stars
2021.12.08 11:24 Spivey_Consulting Podcast: Where is the cycle now and where is it heading?
2021.12.08 11:24 CormacOFa Problems With WAV Files in Serato
Hows it going everyone,
Bit of a long winded issue here but my Serato wasn't launching properly on my laptop so I uninstalled and redownloaded it - all good, it opens fine now.
But now when I try to play a lot of my tracks which are WAVs I get an error message like "only pcm or floating point files supported".
I've been playing with some of these tracks for months and months with no issue so I'm guessing a downloaded a newer version of Serato that's causing some problem.
If anyone knows what's up or how I can fix this I'd really appreciate it.
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2021.12.08 11:24 Beliavsky The unbearable whiteness of being an academic. Why are so many white people claiming to be black or indigenous?
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2021.12.08 11:24 bambucciu Trying out for a local community play
I’m extremely nervous and worried but I’m going to try my best to face my fears. I’ve always wanted to perform but have been to afraid to try because of my social anxiety.
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2021.12.08 11:24 atul_stormypetrel Leading Run-scorers in Test in 2021. Pujara tops the chart from WI. #7Cricket
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2021.12.08 11:24 PsilocybeApe GOP, Democratic party leaders agree Idahoans should say 'no' to crossover voting in primary
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